YHWH as the Temporary Sanctuary in Ez.11:16 (miqdāš mĕʿaṭ): Discontinuity with Traditional Understanding of the Sacred Place-Space in the Book of Ezekiel

Як цитувати

LUKIN, Vladimir. 2020. «YHWH As the Temporary Sanctuary in Ez.11:16 (miqdāš mĕʿaṭ): Discontinuity With Traditional Understanding of the Sacred Place-Space in the Book of Ezekiel». Богословські роздуми: Східноєвропейський журнал богослов’я, вип. 24 (Вересень):75-98. https://doi.org/10.29357/2521-179X.2020.24.5.


The purpose of this paper is not only to point out a number of theological reasons that influenced changes ideas about the sacred place-space, but also in an attempt to indicate the final outlines of a new, albeit temporarily modified, ideology that identifies Yahweh with the sanctuary. A discussion of both the implicit and explicit impulses of such significant changes in the theology of the presence of Yahweh demonstrates that the architectural boundaries of His presence, the temple / /sanctuary traditionally protected by the priesthood and by God himself, become unnecessary and dysfunctional during captivity. This suggests that the immanence of God, described in Ezekiel 11:16, will be qualitatively experienced in different ways: by those who ended up in Babylon and by the captives who were expelled from Jerusalem to other lands.

The first group was influenced by the reduced form of God’s presence — the life and ministry of the prophet Ezekiel. The second group should regard the consequences associated with captivity, as a special marker of His presence with them. And the absence of two classical elements of theophany, such as the cloud and fire, playing the role of indicators of God’s presence, confirm our assumptions. Similar, significant transformations prove that such sins as the desacralization of the temple, its desecration and profanation, did not become an obstacle to the communication of God with those who seek His presence. Summarizing, it should be noted that the metaphor in Ezek.11: 16 inform us about the initiative of Yahweh aimed at reducing the metaphysical distance between Him and the captives, help them to realize that only He, and no one else, should become the center of the spiritual life of the community . In addition, it became apparent that the architectural boundaries of any type of sacred placespace can neither “grab” nor hold Yahweh.



Росс, Вагнер. ≪Использование Ис.8,11-18 (LXX) в Новом Завете≫ в Слово, Толкование, Жизнь, под редакцией Росса Вагнера, Кейвина Роу, Кэтрин Гриб, 80-112. Коллоквиум: Черкассы, 2012.

Владимир, Лукин. “Трансформация ветхозаветной концепции священства в Новозаветном контексте” (Докторская диссертация в области теологии, Христианский Гуманитарно-Экономический Университет, 2014).

Графов, Андрей. Словарь библейского иврита. Москва: Текст, 2019.

Allen, Leslie C. Ezekiel 20-48. Word Biblical Commentary. Michigan: Zondervan Academic, 1994.

———. “The Structure and Intention of Ezekiel 1” Vetus Testamentum 43, Fasc. 2. (April 1993): 145-161.

Awabdy, Mark. “Yhwh Exegetes Torah: How Ezekiel 44:7-9 Bars Foreigners from the Sanctuary.” Journal Biblical literature 131, no. 4 (2012): 685-703.

Bernat, David. “Circumcision and ‘Orlah’ in the priestly Torah” (Ph.D. diss., Brandeis University, 2002).

Bidlack, Beth. “Imagery in Ezekiel’s oracles against foreign nations and rulers (Ezekiel 25-32)” (Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 2000).

Blenkinsopp, Joseph. Isaiah 1-39: A new translation with introduction and commentary New London: Yale University Press, 2008.

———. Ezekiel: Interpretation. A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. Louisville: Knox Press, 1990.

Block, Daniel. Ezekiel 1-24. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Michigan: Eerdmans, 1997.

Bogaert, Pierre-Maurice. “Le Lieu de la Gloire dans le livre d’Ézéchiel et dans les Chroniques: De l’arche au char,” Revue théologique de Louvain 26, fasc. 3 (1995): 281-298.

Clines, David. «šqṣ» The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew, Vol. 8. London: Sheffield Academic Publishing, 2011: 555-556.

Cooper, Lamar. Ezekiel: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture. The New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1994.

Costibolo, Ramil. “The departure of the Kewod YHWH from temple of Jerusalem” (Extracto de la Tesis Doctoral presentada en la Facultad de Teología de la Universidad de Navarra, 2005).

Davidson, Richard. “Earth’s First Sanctuary: Genesis 1–3 and Parallel Creation,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 53, no.1 (2015): 65-89.

Davis, Ellen. Swallowing the Scroll: Textuality and the Dynamics of Discourse in Ezekiel’s Prophecy. Sheffield: Almond Press, 1989.

de Souza, Elias. “The Heavenly Sanctuary/Temple motif in the Hebrew bible: Function and Relationship to the Earthly counterparts” (Ph.D. diss., Andrews University Seminary, 2005).

de Vries, Peter. “The Relationship between the Glory of YHWH and the Spirit of YHWH in Ezekiel 33-48,” Old Testament Essays 28, no.2 (January 2015): 326-350.

———. The Kābôd of Yhwh in the Old Testament With Particular Reference to the Book of Ezekiel. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

Duguid, lain. Ezekiel and the Leaders of Israel.Leiden: Brill, 1994.

Dutra, Amorim. “Defilement and Desacralization in Old Testament” (Ph.D. diss., Andrews University, 1986).

Erickson, Diandra. “Colonization, internal violence, and identity formation: Ambivalent portrayals of power in the book of Ezekiel” (Ph.D. diss., Graduate Theological Union, 2018).

Fredenburg, Brandon. Ezekiel. The College Press Niv Commentary/ Joplin: College Press, 2002.

Freedman – Welch, A.J. “šqṣ.” Theological Dictionary Old Testament, XV. Michigan: Grand Rapids, 2006: 465-469.

Friebe, Kelvin. Jeremiah’s and Ezekiel’s Sign-Acts: Rhetorical Nonverbal Communication. London: Sheffield, 1999.

Galambush, Julie. “Jerusalem in the Book of Ezekiel: The City as Yahweh’s Wife” (Ph.D. thesis, Emory University, 1991).

Ganzel, Tova. “The Descriptions of the Restoration of Israel in Ezekiel” Vetus Testamentum 60, no.2 (2010): 197-211.

———. “The Defilement and Desecration of the Temple in Ezekiel” Biblica 89, no. 3 (2008): 369-379.

Gile, Jason. “Deuteronomic influence in the book of Ezekiel” (Ph.D. thesis, Wheaton College, 2013).

Gnanadas, Danam. “The Sacrifice of the Firstborn in the Hebrew Bible” (Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield, 2018).

Gravett, Lynne. “That all women may be warned: Reading the sexual and ethnic violence in Ezekiel 16 and 23” (Ph.D. thesis, Duke University, 1994).

Greenberg, Moshe. Ezekiel 1-37. Anchor Bible commentary 22. New York City: Garden City, 1983.

Preuss, H.D. “tôʿēbâ”, Theological Dictionary Old Testament, XV (Michigan: Grand Rapids, 2006), 591-602.

Muller, H.P. “qdš” Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament v.3, ed. Ernst Jenni and Claus Westermann, 1103-1118. Canada: Hendrickson, 1997.

Haik, Peter. “The Holiness of God in the Thought of Ezekiel” (Ph.D. thesis, New Orleans Baptist Seminary, 1980).

Hammori, Esther. “When Gods Were Men: Biblical Theophany and Anthropomorphic Realism” (Ph.D. thesis, New York University, 2004).

Häner, Tobias. Bleibendes Nachwirken des Exils: Eine Untersuchung zur kanonischen Endgestalt des Ezechielbuches (Freiburg: Herder, 2014).

Hearson, Nathanael. “‘Go now to Shiloh’: God’s changing relationship with sacred places in the Hebrew Bible and early Rabbinic literature” (Ph.D. thesis, Hebrew Union College, 2005).

Henry, Matties. “Ezekiel 18 and the rhetoric of moral discourse in the Book of Ezekiel” (Ph.D. thesis, Vanderbilt University, 1989).

Hiebel, Janina Maria. Ezekiel’s Vision Accounts as Interrelated Narratives: A Redaction-Critical and Theological Study. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2015.

Hong, Key-Sup. “Judgment and Restoration in Temple visions Ezekiel 8-11and 40-48 in the light of Temple theology” (Ph.D. thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary, 2003).

Huch, John. “A study of the motif of holy fire in the Old Testament” (Ph.D. thesis, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1975).

Hullinger, Jerry. “A proposed solution to the problem of animal sacrifices in Ezekiel 40-48” (Ph.D. thesis, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1993).

Idestrom, Rebecca. Echoes of the Book of Exodus in Ezekiel Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 33, no.4 (2009): 489-510.

Joyce, Paul. Ezekiel: A Commentary. London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2009.

Kamionkowski, Tamar. Gender Reversal and Cosmic Chaos: A Study on the Book of Ezekiel (London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2003).

———. “Gender ambiguity and subversive metaphor in Ezekiel 16” (Ph.D. thesis, Brandeis University, 2000).

Kang, Seung.“Creation, Eden, temple and mountain: Textual presentations of sacred space in the Hebrew Bible” (Ph.D. thesis, Johns Hopkins University, 2008).

Keck, Elizabeth. “The glory of YHWH, name theology, and Ezekiel’s understanding of divine presence” (Ph.D. thesis, Boston College, 2011).

Kilchör, Benjamin. “The meaning of Ezekiel 44, 6-14 in light of Ezekiel 1-39,” Biblica 98, no.2 (2017):198-201.

Kim, Sunhee. “The concepts of sacred space in the Hebrew bible: meanings, significance, and functions” (Ph.D. thesis, Boston University, 2014).

Klein, Ernest. A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English. (University of Haifa: Carta Jerusalem, 1987).

Kung, Mattas. “The ritual dimensions in the Tabernacle worship and their missiological implications” (Ph.D. thesis, Trinity International University, 2001).

Lapsley, Jacqueline. “The problem of the moral self in the Book of Ezekiel” (Ph.D. thesis, Emory University, 1999).

Kutsko, John. Between Heaven and Earth: Divine Presence and Absence in the Book of Ezekiel. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2000.

Lawrence, Sara. “A comparative literary analysis of the marriage metaphor in Hosea 1-3, Jeremiah 2:1-4:4, and Ezekiel 16 and 23” (Ph.D. thesis, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2014).

Levitt, Risa. “A new heart and a new soul: Ezekiel, the exile and the Torah” (Ph.D. thesis, University of California, S, 1999).

Low, Alvin. “A interpretative problems in Ezekiel 1” (ThD thesis, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1985.

Lyons, Michael.“From law to prophecy: Ezekiel’s use of the Holiness Code” (Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, 2005).

MacDonald, Nathan. Priestly Rule: Polemic and Biblical Interpretation in Ezekiel 44. Berlin:Walter de Gruyter, 2015.

McBride, Gregory. “The nature of God’s judgment against Israel in Ezekiel 1-24” (Ph.D. thesis, New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, 1995).

Mein, Andrew. Ezekiel and the Ethics of Exile. Oxford: Oxford Theological Monographs, 2001.

Moskala, Jiri. “The laws of clean and unclean animals of Leviticus 11: Their nature, theology, and rationale (an intertextual study)” (Ph.D. thesis, Andrews University, 1998).

Odell, Margaret. Ezekiel. Smyth & Helwys Bible Commentary. Macon: Smyth & Helwys Publishing, 2005.

Oh, Hwan. “The relationship between the individualism of Jeremiah and that of Ezekiel” (Ph.D. thesis, New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, 2005).

Patton, Corrine. “Priest, Prophet, and Exile: Ezekiel as a Literary Construct” in Ezekiel’s Hierarchical World: Wrestling with a Tiered Reality, ed. Cook, Stephen L. and Patton, Corrine L,73-89. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

Parker, B.J. “A vision of hope and fear: creative research and Ezekiel 1”. Review & Expositor 111, no. 4 (2014): 390–400.

Peñuela-Pineda, Jahisber. “Sanctuary/Temple in Genesis 1–3: A Reevaluation of the Biblical Evidence” (Ph.D. thesis, Andrews University, 2019).

Peterson, Jenson. Graded Holiness: A Key the Priestly conception of the World. London: Sheffield Academic Press, 1992.

Pickett, Winston. “The meaning and function of ‘T’B/O’EVAH’ in the Hebrew Bible (Abomination, Old Testament)” (Ph.D. thesis, Union College, 1985).

Renz, Thomas. The Rhetorical Function of the Book of Ezekiel. Leiden: Brill, 2002.

Ringgren “qdš…” Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament ХII. Michigan: Grand Rapids, 2003: 527-529.

Robson, James. “Word and spirit in Ezekiel” (Ph.D. thesis, Middlesex University, 2004).

Romer, Tomas. “Cultes en dehors du temple de Jérusalem selon Ezéchiel 8”, Rites aux portes, (dir.) Patrick Maxime Michel, 123-132. Bern: Peter Lang, 2017.

Rooker, Mark. Biblical Hebrew in Transition: The Language of the Book of Ezekiel. (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1990.

Ruckhaus, Keith. “An evaluation of the nature and role of the ‘Glory of the Lord’ in Ezekiel 1-24” (Master of Arts, University of South Africa, 2005), 139.

Rudnig, Alexander. Heilig und Profan Redaktionskritische Studien zu Ez 40-48. Berlin:Walter de Gruyter, 2000.

Savran, George. Encountering the Divine: Theophany in Biblical Narrative. London: T&T Clark International, 2005.

Seitz, Christopher. Isaiah 1-39: Interpretation. A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1993.

Shapiro, Miriam. “The Sinai tradition” (Ph.D. thesis, Jewish Theological Seminary of America,1984).

Smith, Paul. “An investigation of the relationship of theophanies to God’s concealment by clouds in the Old Testament” (Ph.D. thesis, New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, 1994).

Spero, Shubert .“From Tabernacle (Mishkan) and Temple (Mikdash) to Synagogue (Bet Keneset) Tradition” A Journal of Orthodox Jewish Thought 38, No. 3 (Fall 2004): 60-85.

Tov, Emanuel. “Recessional Differences Between the MT and the LXX of Ezekiel,” Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniense 62, no.1 (April 1986):89-101.

Tuell, Steven. Ezekiel (Michigan: Baker Books, 2012), 654, Wahonya, Paul .“Ezekiel 5:5-17 and Theodicy: A Theological Investigation of the Character of God” (Ph.D. thesis, Andrews University, 2011).

Warren, Nathanael. “The Sin / the Sanctuary≫ and the Referent / mqdš in Ezekiel 44,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 25, no.3 (2015): 311-323.

Yong-Park, Ahn. “The Parousia in Paul’s letters to the Thessalonians, the Сorinthians, the Romans in relation Old testament-Judaic background” (Ph.D. thesis, Fuller Theological Seminary, 1989).

Zhang, Xiubin. “Discourse Analysis of Ezekiel 40-48: Keeping God’s Holiness” (Ph.D. thesis, Trinity International University, 2018).

Zimmerli, Walther. Ezekiel 1: A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Ezekiel.Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979

Creative Commons License

Ця робота ліцензується відповідно до Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Авторське право (c) 2020 Vladimir LUKIN