Loneliness as a Pandemic in a Global Social Isolation
Keywords:Existential loneliness, cultural loneliness, social loneliness, emotional loneliness, spiritual loneliness, social isolation, relationality, pandemic
AbstractThe article is devoted to the analysis of the influence of loneliness as a problem, which is especially prevalent in the context of modern social isolation, which has a global scale. It is argued that loneliness is a multifaceted concept that is reflected in the social, cultural, emotional, ideological and spiritual spheres of human life. A detailed classification of the types of loneliness and their manifestations in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is given, the differences between such concepts adjacent to loneliness as “solitude” and “social isolation” are highlighted. Based on the analysis of current existing global trends and scientific research in this area, a conclusion is made about the consequences and extent of the spread of loneliness, recommendations are given for overcoming and preventing loneliness.
Barth, Karl. Church Dogmatics. The Doctrine of Creation, Vol. 3, Part 1: The Work of Creation. Transl., J. W. Edwards, O. Bussey, H. Knight, ed., G. W. Bromiley, T. F. Torrance. London: T&T Clark International, 1958.
Brim, Brian J., Ed. D., and Dana Williams. “Defeat Employee Loneliness and Worry with Clifton Strengths.” Gallup, April 21, 2020. Accessed: October 15, 2020. https://www.gallup.com/cliftonstrengths/en/308939/defeat-employee-loneliness-worry-cliftonstrengths.aspx?version=print.
Brodeur, Abel, Andrew E. Clark, Sarah Fleche, and Nattavudh Powdthavee. “Assessing the Impact of the Coronavirus Lockdown n Unhappiness, Loneliness, and Boredom using Google Trends.” Mimeo University of Ottawa (2020). https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2004/2004.12129.pdf.
Cacioppo, John T., Stephanie Cacioppo, and Dorett E. Boomsma. “Evolutionary Mechanisms for Loneliness.” Cognition and Emotion 1, 2014. https://doi:10.1080/0262013.837379.
Cacioppo, John, James Fowler, Nicholas Christakis. “Alone in the Crowd: The Structure and Spread of Loneliness in a Large Social Network.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97, No. 6 (2009): 977-991. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016076.
Cacioppo, John, William Patrick. Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection. New York. London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2008.
Çetin Tan, Mustafa Pamuk, and Ayşenur Dönder. “Loneliness and Mobile Phone.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Science 103 (2013): 606-611. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.378.
Chornobaі Valeriia A. “Loneliness Caused by Technology and Social Media Use.” In Being Human in a Technological Age: Rethinking Human Anthropology. Christian Perspectives on Leadership and Social Ethics Series 7, edited by Steven C. van den Heuvel, 23-34. Leuven, Belgium: Institute of Leadership and Social Ethics, Evangelische Theologische Faculteit, 2020.
Cigna Health Corporation.“Loneliness and the Workplace: 2020 US Report.” 2020, accessed: October 15 2020, https://www.cigna.com/static/www-cigna-com/docs/about-us/newsroom/studies-and-reports/combatting-loneliness/cigna-2020-lonelinessfactsheet.pdf.
Cramer, Kenneth M., Joanne E. Barry. “Conceptualizations and Measures of Loneliness: a Comparison of Subscales.” Personality and Individual Differences 27 (1999): 491-502.
Darcin, E. Asli, Samet Kose, Cemal O. Noyan, Nurmedov Serdar, Onat Yılmaz, and Nesrin Dilbaz. “Smartphone Addiction and its Relationship with Social Anxiety and Loneliness.” Behaviour & Information Technology 35, no. 7 (2016): 520-525. Doi:10.1080/0144929X.2016.1158319.
D’Hombres, Béatrice, Sylke Schnepf, Martina Barjakovà, and Francisco Teixeira Mendonça. “Loneliness – an Unequally Shared Burden in Europe,” Science for Policy Briefs: European Union (2018): 3-4. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/research/crosscuttingactivities/fairness.
Domahidi, Emese, Ruth Festl, Thorsten Quandt. “To Dwell among Gamers: Investigating the Relationship Between Social Online Game Use and Gaming-Related Friendships.” Computers in Human Behavior 35 (June 2014):107-115. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2014.02.023. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260947110_To_dwell_among_gamers_Investigating_the_relationship_between_social_online_game_use_and_gaming-related_friendships.
Ducharme, Jamie. “COVID-19 Is Making America’s Loneliness Epidemic Even Worse.” Time, MAY 8, 2020. Accessed October 15, 2020. https://time.com/5833681/loneliness-covid-19.
Gezgin, M. Deniz, Nazire B. Hamutoglu, Sezen-Gultekin Gozde, and Ayas Tuncay. “The Relationship between Nomophobia and Loneliness among Turkish Adolescents.” International Journal of Research in Education and Science, Volume 4, Issue 2 (March 2018): 358-374. DOI:10.21890/ijres.409265.
Grenz, J. Stanley. The Social God and the Relational Self. A Trinitarian Theology on the Imago Dei. Louisville. London: Westminster John Knox Press, 2001.
Holt-Lunstad, Julianne, Timothy Smith, Mark Baker, Tyler Harris, David Stephenson. “Loneliness and Social Isolation as Risk Factors for Mortality: A Meta-Analytic Review.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 2, no. 10 (2015): 27-37. https://doi:10.1177/1745691614568352.
Jones, Jeffrey M. “U.S. Church Membership down Sharply in Past Two Decades.” Gallup, Politics, April 18, 2019. https://news.gallup.com/poll/248837/church-membershipdown-sharply-past-two-decades.aspx.
Kӧstenberger, Andreas J., Margaret E. Kӧstenberger. God’s Design for Man and Woman: a Biblical-Theological Survey. IL, Wheaton: Crossway, 2014.
Laihonen, Aarno. “Trends in Households in the European Union: 1995-2025.” Statistics in Focus, Theme 3, 24 (2003): 1-8.
Matook, Sabine, Jeff Cummings, and Hillol Bala. “Are You Feeling Lonely? The Impact of Relationship Characteristics and Online Social Network Features on Loneliness.”
Journal of Management Information Systems 31 (2015): 278-310. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2014.1001282.
Moltman, Jurgen. History and the Triune God: Contribution to Trinitarian Theology. New York: Crossroad, 1992.
Mushtaq, Raheel, Sheikh Shoib, Tabindah Shah, and Sahil Mushtaq. “Relationship between Loneliness, Psychiatric Disorders and Physical Health: A Review on the Psychological Aspects of Loneliness.” Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research 8, no. 9 (2014): WE01-WE04. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/10077.4828.
Pedraza, Pablo de, Martin Guzi, and Kea Tijdens. “Life Dissatisfaction and Anxiety in COVID-19 pandemic.” EUR 30243 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2020. Doi:10.2760/755327, JRC120822.
Sailhamer, John. “Genesis.” In Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Edited by Tremper Longman III, David E. Garland. Vol. 1. MI: Zondervan, 2008.
Seepersad, Sean. “Analysis of the Relationship between Loneliness, Coping Strategies and the Internet.” Thesis Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Human Development and Family Studies in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois (2001).
Verduyn, Philippe, David Lee Seungjae, Jiyoung Park, Holly Shablack, Ariana Orvell, Joseph Bayer, Oscar Ybarra, John Jonides, Ethan Kross. “Passive Facebook Usage Undermines Affective Well-Being: Experimental and Longitudinal Evidence.” Journal of Experimental Psychology 144, no. 2, (2015): 480-488. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000057.
Wiesel, Elie. “The Lonely Prophet”. In Loneliness, Boston University Studies in Philosophy and Religion, Vol. 19, edited by Leroy S. Rouner, 127-142. Notre Dame, IL: University of Notre Dame Press, 1998.
Wilcox, Keith, Andrew T. Stephen. “Are Close Friends the Enemy? Online Social Networks, Self-Esteem, and Self-Control.” Journal of Consumer Research, Volume 40, Issue 1, 1 June 2013, 90–103. https://doi.org/10.1086/668794. https://academic.oup.com/jcr/article/40/1/90/1792313.
Свендсен, Ларс Фр. Г. Філософія самотності. Пер. Софії Волковецької. Київ: НікаЦентр, 2017.
Чорнобай, Валерія А. “Богословське осмислення феномена самотності.” Дисертація канд. філос. н., Київ, 2020.
Чорнобай, Валерія А. “Теоретичні засади вивчення феномена самотності.” Практична філософія 69, № 3 (2018): 208-213.
Copyright (c) 2021 Valeriia CHORNOBAI, Viktoriia HRYTSENKO
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
- The author holds the copyright for the final text of the article.
- The Editorial Board holds the copyrights for layout of the articles and the whole issue of the journal.