Biblical Allusions in Expressionist Poetry in the Context of Austrian, German, and Ukrainian Literature: A Comparative Analysis

Tetiana MYKHALCHUK

Abstract


With the application of comparative methodology, this article analyzes biblical allusions, reminiscences, paraphrases, direct and indirect quotations, and symbols in the poetry of Austrian, German, and Ukrainian writers (Georg Heym, Mykola Bazhan, Mykola Khvyliovyj Todosii, T. Osmachka, Pavlo Tychyna, Georg Trakl, Stefan Zweig, Franz Werfel). It explores literary connections between interpretations of Old and New Testament quotations in the original languages (Hebrew and Greek) and poetry in the original languages (Ukrainian and German). Comparison of literary and biblical texts written in the original languages with literary and biblical texts in translation shows both similarities and significant differences in the interpretation of biblical elements. Hamartiological, pneumatological, Christological, apocalyptic, and eschatological motifs and their comparison with Ukrainian and German poetic texts are treated as a model of comparison for the transformation of categories of expression as one of the basic principles for many expressionist texts. 

Keywords


Biblical allusions, reminiscences, paraphrases, comparative literature, expressionism, hamartiological, pneumatological, Christological, apocalyptic, and eschatological motifs, Europe, European culture.

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References


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THEOLOGICAL REFLECTIONS: EURO-ASIAN JOURNAL OF THEOLOGY

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