Active learning for Russian Evangelical educational institutions



This article briefly presents the factors that influenced the formation of spiritual and secular pedagogy in Russia. The author presents a brief analysis of the basic characteristics of a widely-accepted approach to pedagogy, characterized by the effort to impart knowledge to students in the form of previously organized and highly controlled presentations. The author notes the strengths and weaknesses of this approach, including an easily controlled outcome; the impartation of knowledge in concentrated form; a passive type of learning; and the acceptance of knowledge by the students without adequate absorption. Further, the author discusses an active approach to learning that assumes active participation in the educational process by those being taught; the transformation of the role of the teacher into the role of the facilitator; direct knowledge of the God of Truth and not simply knowledge about Him; and the preservation of pure evangelical faith through open dialogue and discussion centered around God and Scripture. The author also makes several practical recommendations concerning the transition to more active forms of learning. The bibliography includes a list of useful literature for further study of active learning methods.


Active learning for Russian Evangelical educational institutions; basic characteristics of a widely-accepted approach to pedagogy; passive type of learning; active forms of learning; study of active learning methods

Full Text:



Bloom, B. 1956. Taxonomy of educational objectives. Handbook I. Cognitive domain. New York: McKay.

Bohn, D. 1997. The perspectives on theological education evident among Evangelical church leaders in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Russia, Ph.D. Diss., Trinity International University.

Brookfield, S. 1987. Developing critical thinkers: Challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

__________. 1995. Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Brookfield, S., and Preskill, S. 1999. Discussion as a way of teaching. Tools and techniques for democratic classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Brown, G., and M. Atkins. 1988. Effective teaching in higher education. New York: Methuen &Co.

Bruffee, K. 1999. Collaborative learning. Higher education, interdependence, and the authority of knowledge. 2d. Ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Charter, M. 1997. Theological education for new Protestant churches of Russia: indigenous judgments on the appropriateness of educational methods and styles,” Ph.D. Diss., Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.

Cookson, P. 2002. Program planing in adult and continuing education. Athabasca University. In L. Cannell course handout materials.

Dewey, J. 1897. My pedagogical creed. In The essential Dewey: Pragmatism, education democracy. vol. 1, by Hickman, L., and T. Alexander, eds. 1998. 229-235. Indiana: Indiana University Press.

_________ . 1933. How we think. In The essential Dewey: Pragmatism, education, democracy. vol. 1: by Hickman, L., and T. Alexander, eds. 1998. 274-277. Indiana: Indiana University Press.

________. 1997. Experience and Education. New York: Simon and Scuster.

Dick Scheuerman. 1996. Christian classics for Russian schools. East-West Church & Ministry Report, 4: 12.

Elliott, M. 1995. Theological education after communism: The mixed blessing of Western assistance. East-West Church & Ministry Report, 3: 11-12.

Elliott, M. 2000a. Post-Soviet theological education: Highlights of two doctoral dissertations. East-West Church & Ministry Report, 8: 9-10.

Fairfield, P. R. 1977. Person-centered graduate education. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus.

Ferris, R. Ed. 1995. Establishing ministry training: A manual for programme developers. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library.

Freire, Paul. 2002. Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.

Galliamov, F. 1995. Simulation Games—effective tool of active education. (Деловые игры - эффективный инструмент активного обучения). Vladivostok.. Accessed 13 January 2003. Available online from: ; Internet.

Gardner, H. 1993. Multiple Intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: BasicBooks.

Gardner, H. 1996. Recent Theories of Intelligence. In : Intelligence Multiple Perspectives. Gardner, H., Kornhaber, M.L., Wake, W. Eds. Harcourt Brace College.

Genike, E. A. 2001. Person-oriented education (Личностно-ориентированное обучение). Accessed 10 January 2003. Available online from: ; Internet.

Goleman, D. 1995. Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.

Holovaty, Nicolas. 2000. An ideal theological education: the vision of Moscow's Protestant leaders. East-West Church & Ministry Report 8: 6-7.

Ignatius of Antioch. A. D. I-II. Magn., c. vi, c. xiii; Smyrn., c. viii;. Trall., . c. iii. In Catholic encyclopedia. Accessed on 13 January 2003. Available online from: ; Internet.

Illich, I. 1972. Deschooling society. New York: Harper and Row.

Jaskson, L., and R. Caffarella, eds. 1994. Experiential learning: A new approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Karges-Bone, L. 1997. Wanted: Idealist, intellectual, prophet—John Dewey as a teacher educator for the mew millenium. The Educational Forum 62: 53-59.

Knowles, M. 1978. The adult learner: the neglected species. 2nd ed. Houston: Gulf.

Kuraev, Andrey. (2001). Internet Forum of Andrey Kuraev: Существует ли Православная Педагогика? (Is there is such thing as Orthodox Pedagogy?) Initiated by Igor Petrov. Accessed 20 November 2001. Available online from: ; Internet.

Loewenberg, D., and D. Cohen. 1999. Developing practice, developing practitioners. InL. Darling-Hammond, G. Sykes eds. Teaching as the learning profession. 3-32. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lomonosov, M. V. 1989. Educational Works. Moscow.

Makarenko, A, S. 1959. Full collection of writings, V. 5. Moscow.

__________. 2001/1955.The Road to life: An Epic of education. University Press of the Pacific: Honolulu, Hawaii.

Meyers, C., and T. Jones. 1993. Promoting active learning. Strategies for the college classroom. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Mezirow, J. 1991. Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Joyce, B., M. Well. And E. Calhoun, eds. 2000. Models of teaching, 6th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 285-300.

Palmer, P. 1993. To know as we are known. Education as spiritual journey. San Francisco: Harper.

________. 1998. The courage to teach. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Polat. E. Ed. 2001. New pedagogical and informational technologies in educational system (Новые педагогические и информационные технологии в системе образования). Moscow: Academia.

Rogers, C., and H. J. Freiberg. 1994. Freedom to learn. New York: Merill.

Rorty, Amelia. (1998). Philosophers on Education. New York: Routledge. Taylor and Francis Group.

Senge, P. 1990. The fift discipline: the art and practice of the learning organization. New York, New York: Doubleday Currency.

Senge, P.. N. Camron-McCabe, T. Lucas, B. Smith, J. Dutton, A. Kleiner.2000. School that learn: A fifth discipline fieldbook for educators, parents, and everyone who cares about education. York, New York: Doubleday Currency.

Schedrovitsky, P. G. 1992. With what we will enter XXI century (С чем войдем в XXI век). Narodnoe obrazovanie May- June 1992: 68-73.

Suchomlinsky, V. A. 1970. Problems of upbringing of holistically developed person (Проблемы воспитания всесторонне развитой личности). Diss.

Ushinsky, К. 1988. Educational writings (Педагогические сочинения). Moscow.

_________. 1989. Collection of writings (Собрание сочинений). Moscow.

Vasilieva, Z. 2001. History of education and pedagogical thought abroad and in Russia (История образования и педагогической мысли за рубежем и в России). Moscow: Academia.

Vella. J. 1995. Training through dialogue. Promoting effective learning and change with adults. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

_______. 2000. Taking learning to task. Creative strategies for teaching adults. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Zinchenko, A. 2000. Game pedagogy. System of pedagogical works of Schedrovitsky school (Игровая педагогика. Cистема педагогических работ Школы Г.П. Щедровицкого). Toliati: Academy of mamagement. (Тольяттиская Академия управления). Accessed 13 January 2003. Available online from: ; Internet.

Zankov. L. V. 1963. ed. Development of pupils in process of education (Развитие учащихся в процессе обучения (1-11 классы). Moscow: APN Publishing.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Igor PETROV


ISSN 2521-179X (Online), ISSN 2415-783X (Print)